# Bouncing ball simulation python

Post a Comment. This week I will show you how to make a bouncing ball. Firstly we will give it a 1 dimensional bounce just up and downand then add on extras in other weeks, such as going into 2 dimensions and putting in wind or resistances, or walls. If you haven't got VPython yet look to the bottom post to download it.

Firstly, we will need python to use the VPython module, so we need to "call it". This will give you access to all the 3D objects that VPython gives you without doing this you would get an error message whenever you wanted to make an object. Next, we need to create a ball. VPython classifies this shape as a sphere, so to add a ball to the screen we need to just type "sphere " below what we have written already. If you run the program now, you will see a white ball in the middle of the screen you can zoom out by pressing down both right and left mouse buttons and then moving the mouse down, or you can rotate by just pressing the right mouse button down and moving the mouse.

Next we want something that the ball can bounce on you can program so that it bounces on nothing, but it looks better if you have a floor to bounce on. The floor can be based on a box, which is created by typing "box ". If we run the program now, you will see that the box and the ball overlap each other, as we have not defined where we are going to put them. This makes the ball start at the position 0 meters across, 50 meters up, and 0 meters inwards.

If we run the program again, the objects should be in the correct places the ball 50 meters above the boxbut the ball and the box look tiny. Now lets change the size of the box and the ball to make it look a bit better. Now we need to define a few constants that we are going to use later on. For starters, lets define gravity. We will define a few more later when we need them, but now lets get on to the movement of the ball.

There is only one force that we want to act on our ball at the moment - the force of gravity. Now we have what we need to set up the motion of the ball. First, we need to set up a loop so that the motion is constant and the equations aren't used only once. If you press enter now, the cursor should be indented to the right. Now type "rate This limits the speed at which the animation runs, so it doesn't run too fast to see, or slow down your computer.

Now we need to use our equations.

We know the acceleration which is gravity which we defined earlierbut we don't know the mass. Now the ball has a mass, we can work out the do the equation. Now to work out the velocity. We know acceleration and position, and we are finding final velocity, but nothing else. We need to define some more variables. Now we come across a problem. We have made a sphere and placed it where we want it, but now we want to come back to it to change its position.

To correct this we need to name our ball lets call it ball to be easy. Now we have named our ball, we can move the ball to wherever we like. After the velocity equation in the loop, type "ball. This will make it so that the position of the ball will constantly update every time the loop is run.

Now run the program and you will see the ball falling like it would in real life with no air resistancebut after a time, our ball goes straight through the box.Visual Python VPython is a module in Python programming language which provides a platform to make 3D models and simulations. In VPython, you can create various objects like sphere, box, cone, cylinder etc.

You can assign different attributes to these objects like size, mass, color, position, velocity, acceleration etc. You can use all the commands and codes of Python language in VPython also. In this post, we are going to simulate a ball which falls under the effect of gravity and bounces off after striking the floor.

You do not need to know deep physics to understand this simulation. The acceleration results in the change in velocity of the object. The velocity results in the change in position of the object.

Now we can look at the VPython but before you start writing any code, you need to install VPython on your computer. You need to install both Python and VPython compilers. You can download the Vpython from the official site. You need to install Python first then Vpyhton.

The support for Vpython is not so good, so you can either use windows. Alternatively, you can go to Glowscript website and run code on online compiler.

There you just need to sign in with google account and you can edit and run your code. You can run code without even sign in. You can also write code in some simple text editor and save as. I assume now you have completed all the installation procedure and are able to access VIDLE or text editor. I am using Linux which mostly uses a text editor and run.

This line already present in the newly created files. Now we will create a sphere with the following command:. Run on Glowscript. Edit the code. After writing the code, we will save the file with name ball.

### How to make a bouncing ball simulator in Python

Sphere creates a white color sphere because we have not specified anything for the sphere. We can specify a radius, position, and color etc. The x-axis is towards the right, the y-axis is upward and the z-axis is towards you means outward of the screen.

Suppose, we want to place the ball at some height, say 10m, so we can select the position as 0,10,0.In this activity we will explore how to use Python to solve the equations of motion for a ball thrown off of a ledge.

You should have some experience with Python syntax at this point, but feel free to use Googlethe Python documentationor the Codecademy glossary to refresh your memory.

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For those with a lot of Python experience, there are some challenges at the end of the activity that should be more than enough to do. To download the file, either click it or right click it and select Save Link As. This should download the program with the. Open up the file by double clicking it.

The Canopy Python environment should open up and you should see the code in the Editor window. Here's what you should see if you sucessfully downloaded and opened the file. The entry point for the program is the evolve function. With these initial conditions, it sets the initial position and velocity of the ball in two dimensionssets up the plotting environment, and starts the main loop that advances the ball forward in time.

What is the acceleration in the x and y directions? Hit the Run button in the toolbar above the editor. This will run the code in the editor window and allow you to access all of the functions in the Python terminal. Now call the evolve function with the arguments evolve 5, 15, 10, 30, 0.

What do these arguments represent? The problem with our simple update algorithm from above is that it does not conserve energy. We would like to create an update scheme that conserves the ball's energy at all times. To do this we can use what is called a drift-kick-drift DKD scheme also called the Leapfrog method or the Velocity-Verlet method. The algorithm is split up into three steps.

Don't forget to update the time and return the new positions and velocities! Now evolve the system by calling the evolve function with the same input values as before, evolve 5, 15, 10, 30, 0. Look at the energy plot as the ball bounces. Have we fixed the problem of energy conservation? Your final plot should look like this.

Run the evolve function for five different combinations of initial speed and direction.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Code Review Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for peer programmer code reviews. It only takes a minute to sign up. I define the physical behaviour of each ball in the Ball class.

The balls are moving inside a square. Here I don't show the code used to display the simulation in a window because I think this is another issue. In general for optimising code you should look at a profiler to tell you where the specific hotspots are. There are also some differences between Python 2. That applies to e. You already have a list, so just iterate over that instead:.

## How to make a ball bounce with Python

Since this is purely destructive there's no need to return the list either. It also reads much nicer. For step1 again you don't need to return the list.

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Also, same idea, don't generate a new list with indexes, just do it on the fly:. Assuming that you don't have any more expensive checks for comparing balls, ball1 is not ball2 should be just a pointer comparison, so reasonably fast.

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Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. It is a simple bouncing ball. What I want is to replace the ball ball. I mean, the only thing I want to change is the ball by replacing it with a circle and animate that circle with the same code I used to animate the ball. Is there any way I can do that? Pygame's draw module allows for other shapes to be drawn as well.

In the code above, you may fill in color and radius with your desired values.

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Learn more. Pygame simple bouncing animation Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 6 months ago. Active 1 year, 3 months ago. Viewed 12k times. I have this program from a pygame tutorial: import sys, pygame pygame. QUIT: sys.

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Joker Joker 1 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 1 1 bronze badge. Active Oldest Votes. You just have to replace screen. But if I do that, it means that it uses the rectangular area of the image. And, for example, if the circle diameter is smaller or bigger than the length of the rectangle "ballrect", the circle will not bounce exactly when it hits the margins of the screen. In order to do that, I will have to use an image the same size of the circle Is there a way that I can use only the circle without having to use an image?

If you draw with pygame. But no, you do not still need an image. To remove the need for the rect, you'd need to re-write the collision detection to check for things like circle-plane intersection.

I know this is old but I was having trouble figuring this out but, I finally did it. QUIT: pygame. Lh Lh 77 1 1 silver badge 5 5 bronze badges.

[2.8] Tutorial: 3D Programming with Python and Blender for Physics Simulations

Before we get to the program, a note about physics definitions. Velocity and speed are not the same.

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Velocity combines speed with a direction. Our program will keep track of the velocitywhich we decompose into horizontal x and vertical y components. Because you have already written the pong game in Lab Assignment 1, you should be able to understand quite easily the code to make the ball bounce off the floor and ceiling.

In the last example, we drew frames at a rate of 20 frames per second. But my computer is fast enough to easily draw 60 frames per second. This was a problem in early PC computer games: the game would draw as many frames as possible per second on the computer the game was written on.

Then a faster computer would come out, and the evil ghosts would run far too fast. We call this amount the timestep. The simplest way to get an approximate value for the timestep is to divide 1 by the frame rate. Making sure, of course, that we do floating division, not integer division. Position is in pixels, velocity is in pixels per second, and the timestep is in seconds. The units for the expression work out to. What is acceleration?

Think of it this way. That means in each second, the velocity will increase by 1 meter per second, so that the increase in velocity is 1 meter per second, per second; or 1 meter per second squared.

And so on. As the ball accelerates, the change in its position from the beginning to the end of each timestep increases. We can solve the second issue by changing all coordinates in the program to be measured in meters.

The floor will be 4 meters from the bottom of the screen. The ball starts at timestep 0so its initial y -coordinate is y 0. If the ball moves at constant velocity v ythen its position after timestep t is.

What if the velocity is not constant? Imagine that the ball starts at velocity 0, but it is accelerating downward. For a ball with velocity v ywith a constant acceleration a yand timestep t. You might wonder whether it makes much difference whether we update the position before or after we update the velocity.

Here, the answer is no. If you can notice the difference in how the program behaves, you have a keener eye than me. With larger distances and long time scales, gravitational accelerations are not constant. Steps 1 and 3 we have already seen how to do in the previous example.I learn best by example and problems.

Thank you for doing this blog. The code and your explanation is very helpful. I think that learning by examples is a good way of doing it.

I will be adding more codes but if you have a suggestion just comment it here! Thanks and good luck with the course! This code and comments have helped me very much.

Although, I am having trouble getting the ball to bounce, if you could help me out it would be greatly appreciated. Thanks again. I am teaching myself Python using a bouncing ball program, but the ball loses energy with each bounce even if I don't program any loss of energy. I think it probably occurs because of approximation at the time of bouncing, but I'm not sure.

Like you, I reset the location of the ball to the border 4 borders in my case when it is within one radius of the border. Any suggestions? I should have mentioned that I enjoy your programs. This is a nice service to all of us trying to learn Python or those interested in bouncing balls!

Friday, May 17, 1. The bouncing ball. Hi all! Involved physics: 1D kinematicsdifferential equations without solving them. Parameters : you can change the initial velocity, high, gravity, the elasticity of the bounce and friction with air. The following lines are used to import the two needed libraries.

Next step is the display were you can set up the size of the window, the title, if you want python to auto-scale the scene among others. The variables' values can be changed because the equations are written as a function of them. Here defining floor as a box and ball as a sphere a vpython's function for drawing them in the scene. Next step, the position of the ball is updated within a while loop.

The next step is to create a loop for updating the position of the ball. Here are used differential equations to update incrementally the position. The idea is to start the loop with a value of dtthat causes a sequence of small increments in velocity and position.

Doing that, you are drawing successive pictures of the ball, floor that produces a movement effect. Now comes a crutial part, the bounce.